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OPTICAL FIBER CONNECTOR PRODUCTS CATEGORY

 Fiber Optic Connector

LC Connector
SC Connector
FC Connector
ST Connector
MU Connector
MTRJ Connector
E2000 Connector
MPO Connector
 Fiber Fast Connector
LC Fast Connector
SC Fast Connector
FC Fast Connector
SC Hot-Melt Fast Connector
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 Standards for Fiber Optic Connectors
 
As an optical component, fiber optic connectors comply with several standards in telecommunications cabling or electrical engineering fields. Here is a table that provides part of the standards that fiber optic connectors accord with:
 
TIA/EIA Telcordia IEEE
TIA/EIA-4750000-B:
Generic Specification for Fiber Optic Connectors
GR-326:
Generic Requirements for Single Mode Optical Fiber Connectors
IEEE Ethernet protocol standard 802.3:
for Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Access Method and Physical Layer Specifications
TIA/EIA-604:
Fiber Optic Connector Intermateability Standards (FOCIS)
GR-1435:
Generic Requirements for Multi-fiber Optical Connectors
IEEE standard 802.3ae:
for 10 Gigabit Ethernet over Optical Fiber (single mode and multimode)
TIA/EIA-568-B.3/C.0/C.3:
Commercial Building Fiber Optic Standards
/ IEEE standard 802.3aq:
for 10 Gigabit Ethernet over Installed Multimode Optical Fiber up
 Fiber Optic Connector Definition
 
Fiber optic connector, or optical fiber connector, is a component to terminate the end of fiber optic cable and enables quicker connection and disconnection than fiber splicing. It mechanically couples and aligns the fiber cores to make light pass successfully. Therefore, fiber optic connectors have an important impact on the fiber optic transmission reliability and the performance of the system. Normally speaking, high-quality optical connectors will lose very little light due to the reflection or misalignment of the fibers.
 

 
 Structure of Fiber Optic Connectors
 
For an optical connector design, there are five key and important components: the fiber ferrule, the sub-assembly body, the connector housing, the fiber cable, and the stress relief boot. We'll take an SC connector for example to illustrate the structure of the fiber optic connector.
 
Fiber Ferrule
The SC connector is built around a long cylindrical 2.5mm diameter ferrule, made of ceramic (zirconia) or metal (stainless alloy). A 124um-127um diameter high precision hole is drilled in the center of the ferrule, where stripped bare fiber is inserted through and usually bonded by epoxy or adhesive. The end of the fiber is at the end of the ferrule, where it is typically polished smooth.

Sub-assembly Body
The ferrule will be assembled in the SC sub-assembly body that has mechanisms to hold the cable and fiber in place. The end of the ferrule is out of the sub-assembly body in order to mate with another SC connector inside a mating sleeve (i.e. adapter or coupler).

Connector Housing
Then the connector housing will cover the connector sub-assembly body, which provides the mechanism for snapping into a mating sleeve (adapter) and holding the connector in place.

Fiber Cable
Fiber cable and strength member (aramid yarn or Kevlar) are crimped onto the connector sub-assembly body with a crimp eyelet, increasing the strength of the mechanical handling of the connector while protecting the fiber inside at the same time.

Stress Relief Boot
Stress relief boot covers the joint between the connector body and fiber cable to protect the fiber cable from mechanical damage. Stress relief boot designs are different for 900um tight-buffered fiber and 1.6mm-3mm fiber cable.
 
 Key Features of Fiber Optic Connectors
 
The key characteristics of the fiber connectors include optical properties, interchangeability, repeatability, reliability, insertion times, etc.

 Optical Properties: insertion loss and return loss are the two main parameters for the optical properties. The lower the insertion loss value, the better. Normally, a qualified connector should keep the insertion loss value below 0.5dB. Contrariwise, a higher return loss will indicate better performance of the connector. The typical value of the connector's return loss should not be less than 25dB, while practically not less than 45dB on account of the polishing process. The reference to Insertion Loss and Return Loss for Fiber Connectors will illustrate these two parameters for you.

Interchangeability and Repeatability: Fiber optic connectors are universal passive devices, the fiber connector of the same type, can be used in any combination and can be used repeatedly.

High reliability: Outside plant applications may require fiber connectors to be located underground or outdoor walls. High-reliability connectors are needed in these harsh environments to make sure of smooth optical transmission.

​​​​​​​ Utilization Rate: Can be plugged more than 1,000 times generally. Therefore, a fiber connector that is easy to use will help users save lots of installation time and improve working efficiency.
 
 
 Fiber Optic Connector Types
 
Based on different classification methods, fiber optic connectors can be divided into different types. According to the pin end surface of the connector, they can be divided into PC, UPC, and APC. According to the different transmission media, fiber connectors can be divided into single mode and multimode fiber optic connectors. Multiple fiber optic connectors have been introduced to the market, but only a few represent the majority of the market, like LC, SC, FC, ST, and MTP/MPO connectors. Click here to get a comprehensive introduction of the fiber optic connector types.
LC 0.9mm Connector
SC 0.9mm Connector
FC 0.9mm Connector
ST 0.9mm Connector
MU Connector
MTRJ Connector
E2000 UPC 0.9mm Connector
MPO APC Connector
FC Hot-Melt Fast Connector
LC Pre-embedded Fast Connector
FC Fast Connector200x200
SC Fast Connector
SC UPC Hot-Melt Fast Connector
LC Straight-through Fast Connector
 Fiber Connector Coupling Loss
 
Only the light that is coupled into the receiving fiber's core will propagate, while the rest of the light is not transmitted through the splice and is radiated out of the fiber. Ideally, the loss will be minimized if the two fiber cores are identical and perfectly aligned, the connectors or splices are properly finished and no dirt is present. Unfortunately, both the fiber and connector are subject to manufacturing tolerances that create less than perfect alignment.

Connector and splice loss is caused by many factors. For example, end gaps will influence the insertion loss and return loss. Therefore, optical connectors will adopt a number of polishing techniques to insure physical contact of the fiber ends to minimize back reflection. In addition, light from a fiber with a larger numerical aperture (NA) will be more sensitive to angularity and end gap, so transmission from a fiber of larger NA to one of smaller NA will be higher loss than the reverse. In other words, connecting larger fibers to smaller ones results in substantial losses, not only due to the smaller cores size, but also the smaller NA of most small core fibers.
 
 

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