What is Coaxial Cable?
What is Fire Alarm Cable?
Fiber Optic Cable

  • What is Coaxial Cable?

    Coaxial Cable
    Coaxial cable is a type of copper cable specially built with a metal shield and other components engineered to block signal interference. It is primarily used by cable TV companies to connect their satellite antenna facilities to customer homes and businesses. It is also sometimes used by telephone companies to connect central offices to telephone poles near customers. Some homes and offices use coaxial cable, too, but its widespread use as an Ethernet connectivity medium in enterprises and data centers has been supplanted by the deployment of twisted pair cabling.
    zion-communication.com 75 Ohm Coaxial Cable

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  • What is Fire Alarm Cable

    Fire Alarm Cable is for use on fire alarms, smoke detectors, burglar alarms, voice communications, power limited circuit cable, critical circuit controls, signaling and indoor non-conduit per NEC. Fire Alarm cable is composed of solid bare conductors. Our Fire Alarm cable is also twisted for maximum flexibility. Fire Alarm cable is also available in Riser or Plenum. Fire Alarm can also be shielded with aluminum foil and a stranded tinned copper drain wire. 

    Fire Alarm Cable Features:
    Insulation: Riser: Fire retardant PVC 
                          Plenum: PVC w/ smoke guard compound 
    Jacketing: Riser: Fire retardant PVC red 
                         Plenum: PVC REd w/ smoke guard compound 
    Temperature Rating: -20 deg C to + 60 deg C 

    Fire Alarm Cable meets the following industry standards 
           • UL FPLR 
        • UL FPLP 
        • UL Standard 1424 
        • NEC Article 760 
        • Rated to 300 Volts

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  • What Is an Ethernet Cable?

    An Ethernet cable establishes an Internet connection through either your modem or router. This cable can link your modem directly with one device — like your computer — though that is not the most secure way to access the Internet. Instead, use Ethernet cables to connect multiple devices to a router for added Internet security and to form a local area network (LAN) that allows file and Internet sharing.
    Whether you are setting up a network for your home or business, you need an Ethernet cable to provide the connection between your router and modem — unless you have a modem and router in one. You can then either use another Ethernet cable to connect your devices with your router, or access the Internet through your router’s Wi-Fi signal.

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  • What is Networking cables

    Networking cables
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    Networking cables are networking hardware used to connect one network device to other network devices or to connect two or more computers to share printers, scanners etc. Different types of network cables, such as coaxial cable, optical fiber cable, and twisted pair cables, are used depending on the network's physical layer, topology, and size. The devices can be separated by a few meters (e.g. via Ethernet) or nearly unlimited distances (e.g. via the interconnections of the Internet).
    There are several technologies used for network connections. Patch cables are used for short distances in offices and wiring closets. Electrical connections using twisted pair or coaxial cable are used within a building. Optical fiber cable is used for long distances or for applications requiring high bandwidth or electrical isolation. Many installations use structured cabling practices to improve reliability and maintainability. In some home and industrial applications power lines are used as network cabling.

    Twisted pair
    Twisted pair cabling is a form of wiring in which pairs of wires (the forward and return conductors of a single circuit) are twisted together for the purposes of canceling out electromagnetic interference (EMI) from other wire pairs and from external sources. This type of cable is used for home and corporate Ethernet networks. Twisted pair cabling is used in short patch cables and in the longer runs in structured cabling.
    An Ethernet crossover cable is a type of twisted pair Ethernet cable used to connect computing devices together directly that would normally be connected via a network switch, Ethernet hub or router, such as directly connecting two personal computers via their network adapters. Most current Ethernet devices support Auto MDI-X, so it doesn't matter whether you use crossover or straight cables.[1]
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    Fiber optic
    An optical fiber cable consists of a center glass core surrounded by several layers of protective material. The outer insulating jacket is made of Teflon or PVC to prevent interference. Optical fiber deployment is more expensive than copper but offers higher bandwidth and can cover longer distances.[2]
    There are two major types of optical fiber cables: short-range multi-mode fiber and long-range single-mode fiber.
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    Coaxial cables confine the electromagnetic wave inside the cable, between the center conductor and the shield. The transmission of energy in the line occurs totally through the dielectric inside the cable between the conductors. Coaxial lines can therefore be bent and twisted (subject to limits) without negative effects, and they can be strapped to conductive supports without inducing unwanted currents in them.
    The most common use for coaxial cables is for television and other signals with a bandwidth of several hundred megahertz to gigahertz. Although in most homes coaxial cables have been installed for transmission of TV signals, new technologies (such as the ITU-T G.hn standard) open the possibility of using home coaxial cable for high-speed home networking applications (Ethernet over coax).
    In the 20th century they carried long distance telephone connections.
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    A patch cable is an electrical or optical cable used to connect one electronic or optical device to another or to building infrastructure for signal routing. Devices of different types (e.g. a switch connected to a computer, or a switch connected to a router) are connected with patch cords. Patch cords are usually produced in many different colors so as to be easily distinguishable,[1] and most are relatively short, no longer than a few meters. In contrast to on-premises wiring, patch cables are more flexible but may also be less durable.
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  • How many different types of Fire Alarm Cable are available?

    There are five basic types of Fire Alarm Cable:
    FPL - Power Limited General Purpose
    FPLR - Power Limited Suitable from Floor to Floor
    FPLP - Power Limited Suitable for use in Ducts, Plenums, and other spaces
    NPLF - Non-Power Limited General Purpose
    NPLFP - Non-Power Limited Suitable for use in Ducts, Plenums, and other spaces

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  • What's the difference between power limited cables and non-power limited cables?

    The difference between power limited cables and non-power limited cables comes down to which sections of NEC they comply with. Non-power limited cables is a fire alarm circuit powered by a source that complies with NEC sections 760-21 and 760-23. Power limited cables is a fire alarm circuit powered by a source that complies with section 760-41.

  • Generally, how do I know what kind of fire alarm cable I need?

    Fire alarm cables are placed into three broad categories: plenum, non-plenum, and riser. Each of these corresponds to another standardized category. Plenum cable, to be used in ducts or other enclosed air spaces, is called FPLP; non-plenum cable, to be used in applications such as surface wiring, is FPL; and riser cable, which can be used in applications that go vertically from floor to floor, is FPLR. All of these names reflect where the fire alarm cable can be installed safely. Once you know where you will install the cable, you know in which category to start looking.
  • Which standards should I consider when choosing fire alarm and security cable?

    In the US, the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) plays an important role in standards because it publishes the National Electrical Code (NEC). This document regulates the installation of electric wiring and equipment and should definitely be considered before starting a project.

    ASTM International and Underwriters Laboratories (UL) also design tests and standards for a wide variety of wire and cable, including those used for fire alarm and security applications. In Canada, CSA International does work similar to the UL in the United States and can help assure compliance with the Canadian Electrical Code.

  • What are some precautions to consider when choosing fire alarm cable?

    There are many safety precautions such as voltage, abrasion resistance, chemical resistance, etc., that should be considered in choosing any kind of electrical cable, including that for fire alarms. However, there are some notable fire-related safety precautions to consider as well. First is the fire resistance of the cable – will it burn and/or how long will it burn? Another is smoke propagation -- how much will it give off if it comes in contact with fire? These considerations should be made when choosing any type of electrical cable, but they are especially important in the case of fire alarm cable which must function in emergency situations and under extreme conditions.

    Most safety concerns (including these fire-related ones) are regulated by the UL, NEC, and other standards organizations and guidelines. The NEC outlines acceptable limits for burning and smoke emissions while the UL and other organizations are responsible for the development of various flame tests cables must pass in order to be considered safe for use.

  • Are there different types of Ethernet cables?

    As with most technology, several versions of Ethernet cables evolved over time to suit changing consumer needs. While any Ethernet cable will likely be able to connect you to the Internet, newer cables are built to handle faster communication of more data.
    Ethernet cables fall into four different categories (“Cats”): Cat-5, Cat-5e, Cat-6, and Cat-6a. These categories were created in that order, and with each new model comes faster speed and less crosstalk (interference from different channels). Cat-5 and Cat-6 are the two most important categories for customers to know, and either one will likely work for a home network. Both of these cables are about 300 feet long and fit into the same Ethernet port on computers, modems, and routers. Cat-5 cables can provide speeds up to 1 Gbps and Cat-6 cables are designed for speeds up to 10 Gbps. There is a category above the Cat-6, but home Internet speeds and hardware capability aren’t quite ready for the Cat-7.
    Just because Ethernet cables can handle lightning-fast speeds doesn’t mean users will notice a faster Internet connection. To maximize the capability of the cables, the user needs to have an Internet Service Provider (ISP) that guarantees 1 Gbps or higher speeds as well as high-speed modems and new computer equipment.
  • How Ethernet cable used

    Ethernet cables, similar to enlarged phone cords in shape and appearance, have RJ45 connectors on each end to hook to a router or enabled device. Ethernet cables are twice as wide as phone cords because they contain twice as many cables. They plug into the back of a PC or the side of a laptop, and also can be used with gaming consoles.
    Sometimes, an LED indicator light will flash at the point of contact to indicate a connection.
    Ethernet is an industry standard in Internet technology supported by all network equipment makers. This makes it possible to connect hardware, regardless of manufacturer.
    Even in an environment that supports wireless Internet access, it’s a good idea to carry an Ethernet cable with your computer as a backup for connectivity.
  • Should I upgrade my Ethernet cable?

    Depending on your Internet speed, either a Cat-5 or Cat-6 cable should work for your needs. However, a new Ethernet cable will not guarantee you faster Internet speeds if your other devices you use aren’t up to date. Your hardware and software work together with your ISP to provide you with the fastest Internet speed possible.
    There are reasons other than speed to upgrade your Ethernet cable. For users who transfer large amounts of data between computers on a local area network (LAN), an upgrade may be essential. If you are setting up a new network, you may want to use the latest Ethernet cable technology to avoid needing to upgrade in the near future.
  • Category 5 cable(CAT5)

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    Category 5 cable, commonly referred to as Cat 5, is a twisted pair cable for computer networks. The cable standard provides performance of up to 100 MHz and is suitable for most varieties of Ethernet over twisted pair. Cat 5 is also used to carry other signals such as telephony and video.
    This cable is commonly connected using punch-down blocks and modular connectors. Most Category 5 cables are unshielded, relying on the balanced line twisted pair design and differential signaling for noise rejection.
    The category 5 was deprecated in 2001 and superseded by the Category 5e specification.

  • Category 6 cable(CAT6)

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    Category 6 cable, commonly referred to as Cat 6, is a standardized twisted pair cable for Ethernet and other network physical layers that is backward compatible with the Category 5/5e and Category 3 cable standards. Compared with Cat 5 and Cat 5e, Cat 6 features more stringent specifications for crosstalk and system noise.[1] The cable standard specifies performance of up to 250 MHz.[1]
    Whereas Category 6 cable has a reduced maximum length when used for 10GBASE-T, Category 6A cable (or Augmented Category 6) is characterized to 500 MHz and has improved alien crosstalk characteristics, allowing 10GBASE-T to be run for the same 100 meter distance as previous Ethernet variants.
  • what is a cat 6 cable

    Cat 6 (Category 6) is a cable standard used mainly for Ethernet computer networking, security systems, and telephone services. Cat 6 cable is backward compatible with the Cat 5E, Category 6 cable is capable of transmitting voice and data up to 155 Mbps (mega bits per second), with possible transmission frequencies up to 550 MHz.


    Cat 6 carries Ethernet 10Base-T, 100Base-TX, and 1000Base-T (Gigabit Ethernet) connections. Cat 6 cable is backed with more stringent specifications for crosstalk and system noise than earlier cabling standards.<o:p>

    Category 6 cables come with four twisted copper wire pairs and each twisted pair is built of larger 23 gauge copper. The earlier model, Category 5, used 24 gauge copper wires. In wire gauges, a larger number indicates a smaller wire.

    Cat 6 cables are generally terminated with RJ-45 electrical connectors. The signal path’s performance will be limited to that of the lowest category if components of the various cable standards are intermixed. The maximum length of one Cat 6 cable segment is 220 meters. A repeater needs to be installed to send data over longer distances or data loss may occur.

  • FTTB, FTTC, FTTH, and FTTN technologies

    "Fiber to the Building" (FTTB) refers to installing optical fiber from the telephone company central office to a specific building such as a business or apartment house.
    "Fiber to the Curb" (FTTC) refers to the installation and use of optical fiber cable directly to the curbs near homes or any business environment as a replacement for "plain old telephone service" (POTS) Fiber to the curb implies that coaxial cable or another medium might carry the signals the very short distance between the curb and the user inside the home or business.
    "Fiber to the Home" (FTTH) is a network technology that deploys fiber optic cable directly to the home or business to deliver voice, video and data services. By leveraging the extremely high bandwidth capacity of fiber, FTTH can deliver more bandwidth capacity than competing copper-based technologies such as twisted pair, HFC and xDSL.
    Fiber to the home is deployed in two primary architectures - point-to-point and passive optical network (PON). While both have their place in solving the last-mile bottleneck, a point-to-point architecture is generally deployed to businesses in metro and urban areas, while a PON is a more cost-effective solution for small- to medium-sized businesses and residences. A PON architecture allows a single fiber from the central office (CO) or headend to be split up to 32 ways, delivering high-bandwidth converged services to multiple residences or businesses, using a single optical transceiver in the CO. In a point-to-point configuration, an optical transceiver for each subscriber is required in the CO, thus substantially increasing the total cost of deployment.
    "Fiber to the neighborhood" (FTTN) refers to installing it generally to all curbs or buildings in a neighborhood. Hybrid Fiber Coax (HFC) is an example of a distribution concept in which optical fiber is used as the backbone medium in a given environment and coaxial cable is used between the backbone and individual users (such as those in a small corporation or a college environment).
  • What does it cost to use fiber vs. conventional cat 5 cabling for a LAN?

    Fiber will cary any speed imaginable its not limited, and CAT5 carries only 100 mbit. The expense is about 1000 times CAT5 for fiber. It's VERY expensive to lay fiber. We are talking low 6 figures per about 100 feet of cable. Typical cost of multimode fiber per foot is around $0.75 compared to $0.10 for Cat5e Gigabit certified copper cable.
  • When is it viable to string fiber cable overhead?

    There are two solutions: self-supporting aerial cable or regular cable lashed to a messenger (maybe even the old telephone wire!) Most cablers can help you with a suggestion of the proper cable types.How soon will it be, until we are able to communicate via the telephone/internet/television by means of fiber optics? And how many fibre optics would be required for a small town?The answer to this question is complicated. The Internet is all fiber optics today, as is most of the phone and CATV systems. It's only the final connections to the home that is still copper and activity in that area is very high in 2005. The telephone companies have been pushing DSL, but it is a flawed concept - bandwidth is heavily dependent on the length of the lines, so generally it's not much better than a telephone modem. CATV companies are happy with coax cable, as it has
    gigibit capability. Both complain fiber to the home is too expensive, but the alternatives are not many, forcing the issue from a competitive standpoint!
    As to how much fiber is needed, that depends on the system used. Two fibers to the home are probably adequate (one transmits, the other receives.) Backbone cables are usually 72-288 fibers, since it is more economical to install large fiber count cables now and leave them dark. Several techniques exist to multiplex signals on the fibers, including frequency-division, time-division and wavelength-division multiplexing, so one pair of backbone fibers can serve thousands of connections. No one answer here!
  • What type of fiber is required to run at gigabit speed?

    Depends on how far you want to go. Plain old FDDI fiber (160 MHz-km bandwidth @ 850 nm and 500 MHz-km @ 1300 nm ) will go ~240 m with a 850 VCSEL or 500 m with a 1300 laser. Practically every fiber manufacturer has 50/125 laser-optimized premium fiber (OM2/OM3/OM4) that will go a lot further -as far as 2 km - and while it's more expensive, we recommend it for any backbone applications.
  • Can you please tell me what the difference between, dB and dBm

    Fiber optic power measurements are generally made in a log scale of "decibells" or "dB" (actually named after Alexander Graham Bell) that has a scale of 10 dB for every factor of 10 in power. The equation is actually:
    dB=10 log (power 1/power 2)
    dB is therefore a ratio measurement - 10 times more power is +10 dB and 100 times less is -20 dB, etc.
    For ABSOLUTE measurements, you must have a reference point. If we use 1 milliwatt of power as our reference, our equation becomes
    dB= 10 log (power/1 mW)
  • What are some of the uses of fiber optic cabling in the business world?

    The biggest use is telephony, followed by CATV, then LAN backbones, connecting hubs. Next is connecting remote video cameras for security systems. The building management and security systems are switching to fiber in many buildings due to distance and EMI requirements. Fiber is not often used to the desk because it is perceived to be too expensive, but it allows a system without wiring closets, making the cost less in most instances. Gigabit Ethernet will drive even more fiber into networks, since UTP applications will be too difficult to install.
  • Can you give me a definition of structured cabling?

    "Structured Cabling" refers to a standardized cabling architecture, specified by EIA/TIA 568 in the US and ISO 11801 internationally. It uses twisted pair and fiber optic cables to create a standardized cabling system designed for telephones and LANs built by many manufacturers. The nomenclature here is even less precise. Vendors also refer to this as "structured cabling", data-voice cabling, low-voltage cabling and limited-energy cabling.
  • Do signals really travel faster in fiber optics?

    You know that "sending communications at the speed of light" means the speed of light in glass (about 2/3 C), but you might be surprised to know that signals in UTP (unshielded twisted pair) cables like Cat 5e travel at about the same speed (2/3 C). Coax, meanwhile, has a faster NVP (nominal velocity of propogation), about 0.9C, due to it's design. Fiber's "speed" is not referring to the speed of the signal in the fiber, but the bandwidth potential of the fiber.


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