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optical fiber_副本


Optical fiber classification

Band wavelength: O=1260, E=1310, S=1380, C=1550 and L=1625 nm (O, E, S, C, L) 

Single mode: 8/125μm, 9/125μm, 10/125μm 

Multimode: 50/125μm European Standard 62.5/125μm US Standard

 Industrial, medical and low speed networks: 100/140μm, 200/230μm 

Plastic optical fiber: 98/1000μm for automotive control. 

Q: What is the transmission distance of multimode single mode fiber optic cable? 

A: Multimode fiber optic cable 850nm (transmission wavelength) typical distance ≤2.5KM 

Multimode fiber cable 1300nm (transmission wavelength) typical distance ≤ 6KM 

Single mode fiber cable 1310nm (transmission wavelength) typical distance ≤ 16KM 

Single mode cable 1550nm (transmission wavelength) typical distance ≤ 25KM 

TIA: Telecommunications Industry Alliance

EIA: Electronics Industry Alliance

IEC: International Electrotechnical Commission

ITU-T: International Telecommunication Union

Telcordia: part of Ericsson, a communications technology company

 

OM1 (A1b) US standard: Refers to a 62.5um core-diameter multimode fiber with a full injection bandwidth of 200/500MHZ at 850nm or 1300nm.

Gigabit transmission distance is 275 meters.

OM2 (A1a) European Standard: A 50um core-diameter multimode fiber with a full injection bandwidth of 500/500MHZ at 850nm or 1300nm.

Gigabit transmission distance is 550 meters.

OM3 and OM4 are 50um core multimode fiber for 850nm laser, in 850nm, VCSEL 10Gb/s Ethernet

OM3 fiber transmission distance can reach 300M, (OM3-150, OM3-300, OM3-550, reach 10 Gigabit within 150 meters)

OM4 can reach 550M

 

Classification of IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission)

Class A: Multimode fiber

A1a 50/125μm for Gigabit Ethernet, 550m propagation, multimode gradient index fiber / G.651=OM2

A1b 62.5/125μm for Gigabit Ethernet, 275m propagation, OM1

A1d 100/140μm

Class B: 9/125 series

B1.1(G.652B) Non-dispersion shifted fiber G.652A /G.652B , zero dispersion wavelength @1310nm 

B1.2b Cut-off wavelength shifting fiber G.654.A , applied to submarine cable

B1.2c G.654.B / G.654.C @1550nm 

B1.3(G652D) Wavelength-expanded non-dispersion-shifted fiber G.652C /G652D @1310nm @1383nm 

B2a Dispersion-shifted fiber G.653.A @1550nm Four-wave mixing occurs at high power

B2b G.653.B 

B3 dispersion flat fiber

B4c Non-zero dispersion-shifted fiber G.655.A, B, C @1550nm Solve the four-wave mixing effect of G653

B4d G655D

B4e G655E 

B5 G656 @1460-@1625 

B6a1 G657A1 is compatible with B1.3 fiber, with a bending radius of 10mm @1260-@1625

B6a2 G657A2 bending radius 7.5mm 

B6b2 G657B2 is not compatible with B1.3 fiber, bending radius 7.5mm @1310 @1550 @1625

B6b3 G657B3 bending radius 5mm

 

Classification of ITU-T (International Telecommunication Union):

G.651 (OM2=A1a) fiber (50/125μm multimode gradient index fiber)

Mainly used in LAN, 300-500 meters range. G.651 Long-wavelength multimode fiber (ITU-T G.651) 50/125 μm. 

G.652 Non-dispersion-shifted fiber @1310nm Best-performing single-mode fiber with mode field diameter of 8.6~9.5μm SM

G.652B (B1.1): Supports 10Gbit/s system transmission distance up to 3000km, 40Gbit/s system transmission distance is 80km

G.652D (B1.3): Supports 10Gbit/s system transmission distance up to 3000km, 40Gbit/s system transmission distance is 80km

The attenuation coefficient is the same as that of G.652C, that is, the system can work in the 1360~1530nm band.

The zero-dispersion wavelength is at 1310 nm, and the attenuation is minimal at a wavelength of 1550 nm, but has a large positive dispersion of about 18 ps (nm/km).

G.652.D is the most rigorous and fully backward compatible of all G.652 levels, and is structurally indistinguishable from ordinary G.652 fiber.

The reason for this difference is in manufacturing technology.

G.652A: Supports 10Gbit/s system transmission distance up to 400km, 40Gbit/s system distance is 2km, 10Gbit/s Ethernet transmission is up to 40km,

G.652C: Supports 10Gbit/s system transmission distance up to 400km, 40Gbit/s system distance is 2km,

However, the attenuation coefficient is lower at 1550nm, eliminating the water absorption peak near 1380nm, working in the 1360~1530nm band.

G.652 The earliest practical single-mode fiber, 95% of the existing routing is such fiber, so it is called a conventional single-mode fiber.

The lowest price and the most mature technology, the main disadvantage is that the dispersion coefficient is large in the 1550 band, which is not suitable for long-distance applications above 2.5Gb/s.

G652 single-mode fiber is the largest fiber in the world (about 70% of the fiber) and is called "conventional single-mode fiber."

It has two windows of 1550 nm and 1310 nm at the same time. The zero dispersion point is near the 1310 nm window and the minimum attenuation is at the 1550 nm window.

Its characteristics are zero when the wavelength is around 1310 nm when designing and manufacturing, and the loss is the smallest at 1550 nm, but the dispersion is the largest.

The typical loss of the G652 single-mode fiber in the above two windows is:

The attenuation of the 1310 nm window is 0.3 to 0.4 dB/km, and the dispersion coefficient is 0 to 3.5 ps/nm.km.

The attenuation of the 1550 nm window is 0.19 to 0.25 dB/km, and the dispersion coefficient is 15 to 18 ps/nm.km.

In addition to the 1310nm and 1550nm wavelength regions, the G652C single-mode fiber extends the wavelength range to 1360nm to 1530nm.

Main use: G652 single-mode fiber has the advantages of low internal loss, large bandwidth, easy upgrade and expansion, and low cost.

G652 single-mode fiber can be widely used in high-speed, long-distance transmission, such as long-distance communication, trunk, cable TV and loop feeders.

G652 single-mode fiber is suitable for all kinds of fiber optic cable structures, including fiber optic ribbon cable, loose-layer stranded cable, skeleton cable, center bundle tube cable and tight cable. 

G.657 Bend insensitive fiber: The latest fiber variant developed on G.652 fiber, with a mode field (8.6-9.5) ± 0.4, fully compatible with G.652,

It has excellent bending resistance and its bending radius is 1/4 to 1/2 of G.652 fiber.

Mainly used for FTTH fiber to the home, and small bend radius conditions. Mainly do some air blowing micro-cable; FTTH such as leather cable, DAC cable.

G.657A: Transmits 1260, 1310, 1380, 1550, and 1625 nm wavelengths (O, E, S, C, L) and is fully compatible with G.652D.

A1 bending radius 10mm

A2 bending radius 7.5mm

G.657B: Transmission of 1310, 1550 and 1625 nm wavelengths, more suitable for installation in indoors or buildings and other narrow spaces, does not require compatibility with G.652D.

B2 bending radius 7.5mm

B3 bending radius 5mm 

There are three bending levels: 1/bend radius 10mm, 2/bend radius 7.5mm, 3/bend radius 5mm

 

G.653 (B2) Dispersion-shifted fiber DSF: a fiber that shifts the zero-dispersion wavelength by 1.3 μm, Dispersion-Shifted Fiber,

Optimized working wavelength (four-wave mixing effect at 1550nm, not suitable for high-speed transmission, has been eliminated)

G.654 Cut-off wavelength shifting fiber: Attenuated minimum fiber, ultra long-distance transmission, such as submarine cable. The least used fiber is actually used. The mode field diameter is 9.5-10.5um,

@1550nm, the lowest attenuation coefficient (about 15% lower than G.652, G.653, G.655 fiber)

 

G.652 single-mode fiber based on the study of the cut-off wavelength shift single-mode fiber,

The shape of the fiber refractive index profile is substantially the same as that of the G.652 single mode fiber.

It is achieved by using a pure silica (SiO2) core to reduce the fiber attenuation, and the cladding is doped with F to lower the refractive index to obtain the desired refractive index difference.

Compared with G.652 fiber, the outstanding performance of this fiber is: at 1550nm working wavelength, the attenuation coefficient is very small, only about 0.15dB/km;

Through the cutoff wavelength shift method, the bending additional loss of the fiber is greatly improved.

 

G.655(B4) Non-zero dispersion-shifted fiber: non-zero dispersion fiber, dense wavelength division multiplexing optical fiber communication system for long distance and large capacity communication above 10Gbit/s. NZ or NZDS

Solve the problem that the dispersion of G.652 fiber is too large at 1550nm working wavelength and the four-wave mixing of G.653 fiber at 1550nm working wavelength is serious.

The dispersion of the working window at 1530 to 1565 nm is not zero, and a suitable dispersion system value capable of suppressing four-wave mixing is maintained.

Tens or even hundreds of optical channels are simultaneously transmitted in one optical fiber.

G.655A

G.655B

G.655C

G.656 Non-zero dispersion fiber: Provides broadband broadband transmission, ensuring channel spacing of 100GHz, 40Gbit/s system with at least 400km

It is very suitable for coarse wavelength division multiplexing and dense wavelength division multiplexing in the wavelength range of 1460 to 1624 nm (S+C+L3 bands).

Compared with G.652 fiber, G.656 can support a smaller dispersion coefficient and a wider working wavelength. 1460 ~ 1624nm (S + C + L3 bands)


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